Hepatotoxic and Nephrotoxic Effect of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Scoparia Dulcis (Linn) in Wistar Rats

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  •   Olubodun A. Adebiyi

  •   Danladi A. Ameh

  •   Elewechi Onyike

  •   Dorcas B. James

Abstract

Scoparia dulcis (Linn) is a widespread herbal medicine; it bears an enormous number of pharmacological activities. The present study was undertaken to find out the chronic toxicity profile of oral administration of Scoparia dulcis ethanol leaf extract (SDELE) on the liver and the kidney of wistar rats. The animals were grouped into four and administered varying doses of SDELE (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg body weight and 0.2 ml distilled water respectively) for a period of fourteen weeks (100 days). The acute toxicity, body weight, relative organ weight, hematological parameters, biochemical markers for liver and kidney damage were monitored and histopathology of the liver and kidney of the rat were carried out. The LD50 of SDELE was found to be 1131 mg/kg body weight. There was a significant (p<0.05) reduction in weight of the rat administered 400 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg when compared with the control though there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the relative weight of the organs. There was also a significant increase (p<0.05) in the lymphocytes, serum level of aspartate amino transferase (ASP), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkali phosphatase (ALP), total protein, A/G ratio, creatinine, urea, uric acid, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and potassium ions while there was a significant decrease in HDL-cholesterol and sodium ions in the animal group administered 400 mg/kg body weight of the extract. Histopathology of the liver and kidney revealed haemorrhage and vascular congestion at 200 mg/kg doses and renal damage at 400 mg/kg body weight doses respectively. However, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in any of the parameters studied in the group administered 100 mg/kg body weight dose when compared with the controlled group. Ethanol leaf extracts of Scoparia dulcis showed hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic tendencies and should be used with caution especially when employed in the treatment of chronic diseases


Keywords: Chronic toxicity, Hepatotoxic, Nephrotoxic, Scoparia dulcis (Linn)

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How to Cite
Adebiyi, O. A., Ameh, D. A., Onyike, E., & James, D. B. (2021). Hepatotoxic and Nephrotoxic Effect of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Scoparia Dulcis (Linn) in Wistar Rats. European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, 2(4), 20–27. https://doi.org/10.24018/ejbio.2021.2.4.234