Isolation and Control of Fungal Pathogens Associated with Spoiled Carica papaya (L.) Fruit in Mubi Main Market using Aqueous Leaf Extract of Sida acuta. (L.)


  •   C. S. Yusuf

  •   T. D. Tizhe

  •   U. James

  •   N. N. Zakawa

  •   P. J. Wazamda


The fruit of Carica papaya (pawpaw) is an important crop widely grown around the world. Isolation and control of fungi associated with spoiled pawpaw in the Mubi main market were carried out. A total of twenty (20) pawpaw fruits were collected from four locations, the isolation and characterization were done using standard procedure. The result revealed that four fungi cause pawpaw spoilage in the study area (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium expansum, Mucos spp and Rhizopus stolonifer) and were confirmed through a pathogenicity test. Location3 of the main market showed the highest disease incidence of 50%; location 2 the least with 20%. The efficacy of leaf extract of S. acuta was tested for antifungal activities against the four isolates and was positive as the zone of inhibition by the extract increases with an increase in concentration. It can be concluded that A. niger, P. expansum, Mucos spp and R. stolonifer were pathogens responsible for C. papaya fruit rot in Mubi main market. S. acuta leaf extract was able to restrain the growth of the pathogens. Further research should be carried out to determine the phytochemical present in the leaf extract of S. acuta and also to identify the active components in the plants.

Keywords: Inhibition, pawpaw, pennicillium, leaf, growth, pathogen


Akinmusire, O.O. Fungal species Associated with the Spoilage of Some Edible Fruits in Maiduguri Northern Eastern Nigeria. Advances in Environmental Biology, 2011, 5:157-161.

Chaudhary. S.M. and Dhaka, N. Post-harvest diseases of selected fruits in the wholesale market of Dhaka. Bangladesh J. Plant Pathol. 2016, 30(1&2): 13-16.

Baiyewu, R.A., Amusa, N.A., Ayoola, O.A., Babalola, O.O. Survey of the post-harvest diseases and aflatoxin contamination of marketed pawpaw fruit (Carica papaya) in South-Western Nigeria. African J. Agri. Res, 2007, 2(4): 178-181.

Nakasone, Y. H. and Paul, R. E. Tropical fruits. In: Crop production science in horticulture series, CAB International, Wallingford, 1998, 468.

Magga, B. and Zakawa, N.N. Antifungalactivities of seed extract of mahogany on C. papaya fruit rot in Mubi, Adamawa State.World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2018, 7(14):170-182.

Akintobi, A.O., Okonko, I.O., Agunbiade, S.O., Akano, O.R., Onianwa, O. Isolation and identification of fungi associated with the spoilage of some selected fruits in Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria. Acad. Arena. 2011, 3(11):1-10.

Mairami, M., Fatima, A., Ndana, R., Umar, I. Isolation and identification of fungi species associated with fruit spoilage Bwarri market Abuja, Nigeria. Journal of Advanced Microbiology, 2018, 12:1-6.

Ekpo, M.A. and Etim, P.C. Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Sida acuta on micro-organisms from skin infections. Journal of Medicinal Plants, 2009, 3:621‑4.

Jindal, A., Kumar, P., Jain, C. Antifungal activity of flavonoids of S. acuta Burm against Candida albicans. International Journal of Drug Development and Research, 2012, 4(3):92-96.

Akilandeswari, S., Senthamarai, R., Valarmathi, R., Prema, S. Screening of Gastric Antiulcer Activity of Sida acuta Burm. f. International Journal PharmTech Research, 2010, 2(2):1644-1648.

Edeoga, H.O. Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants. African Journal of Biotechnology, 2005, 4(7):685-688.

Parson, E. Noxious weeds of Australia (2 ed.). CSIRO Publishing. 2001, 508–509.

Villegas, V.N. (1997). Development of ringspot virus tolerant papaya (Carica papaya L.) varieties. in S. Vijaysegaran, M. Pauziah, M.S. Mohamed and S. Ahmad Tarmizi, eds., Proceedings of the International Conference on Tropical Fruits. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Serdang. 1997, 1: 117-120.


How to Cite
Yusuf, C. S., Tizhe, T. D., James, U., Zakawa, N. N., & Wazamda, P. J. (2021). Isolation and Control of Fungal Pathogens Associated with Spoiled Carica papaya (L.) Fruit in Mubi Main Market using Aqueous Leaf Extract of Sida acuta. (L.). European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, 2(4), 44–46.