An experience in seawater microcosms was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the zeolite chabazite (CHA) in the mitigation of water eutrophication produced by sediments with high organic load. The experience was conducted in microcosms with addition and in the absence of effective microorganisms (EM). In the absence of EM, the ammonium abatement by CHA compared to the controls without CHA, was elevated only in the first week, while with the addition of EM, the abatement occurred for the entire experience (one month), although gradually reducing, as ammonia releases increased over time. Ammonium releases were 1.4 to 2.3 times lower in CHA microcosms compared to CHA-free controls and, among those in which CHA was present, they were lower in the presence of EM. Soluble orthophosphates also showed a reduction in microcosms with CHA, compared to the control microcosms, with a more marked results in the absence of EM, probably due to the formation of insoluble salts.
Aly, H.A., Abdel-Rahim, M. M., Lofty, A. M., Abdelaty, B.S., Sallam, G. M. (2016). Tjhe Applicability of Activated Carbon, Natural Zeolites and Porbiotics and Its Effects on Ammonia Removal Efficiency and Fry Performance of European Seabass Dicentrarchus labrax. Journal of Aquacultere Research and Development. 7(11), 459-466.
Amend, D. F., Croy, T. R., Goven, B. A., Johnson, K. A., McCarthy, D. H. (1982). Transportation of fish in closed systems: methods to control ammonia, carbon dioxide, pH and bacterial growth. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 111, 603-611.
APAT, IRSA-CNR (2003). Metodi Analitici per le Acque. Roma. (1), 1153.
Berger, D., Di Natale, F., Forneris, G., Palmegiano, G. B. (1991). Use of zeolitic tuffs in NH4 removal in carp rearing under laboratory conditions. Atti 1° Convegno Nazionale di Scienza e Tecnologia delle Zeoliti, Napoli, 157-162.
Briggs, M.R.P., Funge-Smith, S.J. (1996) The effects of zeolites and other alumino-silicate clays on water quality at various salinities. Aquaculture Research, 27, 301-311.
Chiayvareesajja, S. & Boyd, C.E. (1993). Effects of zeolite, formalin, bacterial augmentation and aeration on total ammonia nitrogen concentrations. Aquaculture, 116(1), 33-45.
Ciambelli, P., Corbo, P., Lumare, F., Porcelli, C. (1984). Ammonium ion exchange with phillipsite tuff in relation to aquacultural systems. Zeo-Agriculture. Use of Natural Zeolites in Agriculture and Aquaculture. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 245-252.
Colella, C. (1996). Ion exchange equilibria in zeolite minerals. Mineralium Deposita, 31, 554-562.
Colombani, N., Mastrocicco, M., Di Giuseppe, D., Faccini, B., Coltorti, M. (2015). Batch and column experiments on nutrient leaching in 1 soils amended with Italian natural zeolitites. Catena, 127, 64-71.
Comba, S., Martin, M., Marchisio, D., Sethi, R., Barberis, E. (2012). Reduction of Nitrate and Ammonium Adsorption Using Microscale Iron Particles and Zeolitite. Water Air Soil Pollution, 223, 1079–1089.
Faccini, B., Di Giuseppe, D., Malferrari, D., Coltorti, M., Abbondanzi F., Campisi T., et al. (2015). Ammonium-exchanged zeolitite preparation for agricultural uses: from laboratory tests to large-scale application in ZeoLIFE project prototype. Periodico di Mineralogia, 84 (2), 303-321.
FAO (2006). The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
Flanigen, E. M. (1983). Adsorption properties of molecular sieve zeolites. Zeo- Agriculture: Use of Natural Zeolites in Agriculture and Aquaculture, Westview Press, Colorado, pp. 55-68.
Gennaro, P., Lenzi, M., Porrello, S. (2005). Coastal systems of the Tyrrhenian Sea (West coast). Lagoon of Orbetello, Tuscany. Nutrient fluxes in transitional zones of the Italian coast, Land-ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ) Reports & Studies, 28, 118-122.
Higa, T., & Parr, J. F. (1994). Beneficial and effective microorganisms for a sustainable agriculture and environment (Vol. 1). Atami: International Nature Farming Research Center.
Kumar, L., Kaur, R., Sharma, J. (2021). The efficiency of zeolites in water treatment for combating ammonia – An experimental study on Yamuna River water & treated sewage effluents. Inorganic Chemistry Communications, 134, 108978.
Lahav, O., Green, M. (1998). Ammonium removal using ion exchange and biological regeneration. Journal of Water Research, 32, 2019-2028.
Loh, P.S. (2005). An assessment of the contribution of terrestrial organic matter to total organic matter in sediments in Scottish sea lochs. [Doctoral dissertation, UHI Millennium Institute].
López-Ruiz, J. L., Goméz-Garrudo, M. E. (1994). Zeolites in marine nitrogen transformations. Aquacultural Engineering, 13, 147-152.
Markoska, V., Reka, A. (2013). Preliminary Examinations from Wastewater Treatment by Zeolite from Waste Materials. 8. Simpozijum “Reciklazne Tehnologijie I Odrzivi Razvoj” 239-242.
Meulepas, R. J. W., Jagersma, C. G., Khadem, A. F., Stams, A. J. M., Lens, P. N. L. (2010). Effect of methanogenic substrates on anaerobic oxidation of methane and sulfate reduction by an anaerobic methanotrophic enrichment. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 87(4), 1499–1506.
Murphy, C. B., Hryck, O., Gleason, W. T. (1994). Natural zeolites: novel uses and regeneration in wastewater treatment. Natural Zeolites; Occurrences, Properties and Use, Pergamon Press, Elmsford. 471 – 478.
Muscarella, S.M., Badalucco, L., Cano, B., Laudicina, V.A., Mannina, G. (2021). Ammonium adsorption, desorption and recovery by acid and alkaline treated zeolite. Bioresource Technology, 341, 125812.
Passaglia, E. (2008). Zeoliti naturali, zeolititi e loro applicazioni. Arvan, Padova. Italian.
Porrello, S., Ferrari, G., Lenzi, M., Persia, E. (2003a). Ammonia variations in phytotreatment ponds of land-based fish farm wastewater. Aquaculture, 219(1-4), 485-494.
Porrello, S., Lenzi, M., Persia, E., Tomassetti, P., Finoia, M. G. (2003b). Reduction of aquaculture wastewater eutrophication by phytotreatment ponds system. I: Dissolved and particulate nitrogen and phosphorus. Aquaculture, 219(1- 4), 515-529.
Pusceddu, A., Dell’Anno, A., Fabiano, M., Danovaro R. (2009). Quantity and bioavaillability of sediment organic matte ras signatures of benthic trophic status. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 375, 41–52.
Wheaton, F. W. (1982). Aquacultural Engineering. John Wiley & Sons. N.Y.
Zakaria, Z., Gairola, S., Shariff, N. Mohd. (2010). Effective Microorganisms (EM) Technology for Water Quality Restoration and Potential for Sustainable Water Resources and Management. International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software, 142.